Trenching and Shoring Program
| Summary: This
program sets forth procedures related to trenching and shoring
activities at the University of California at Irvine (UC Irvine). Procedures
on expectations for work in excavations are included in this program.
1. Program Description
5. Specific Program Components
6. Reporting Requirements
7. Information and External
8. Training Requirements and Competency Assessment
This program sets forth procedures related to trenching and shoring
activities at the University of California at Irvine (UC Irvine). Procedures
on expectations for work in excavations are included in this program.
This program also specifies responsibilities for different parties, training
requirements for entrants and competent persons, code of safe practices,
and types of personal protective equipment to use while performing trenching
and shoring activities.
The scope of this program applies to all facilities and grounds at UC
Irvine and to all UC Irvine employees, while performing regularly scheduled
or emergency trenching and shoring activities. All departments at UC
Irvine are required to assess their vendor and/or contractor programs
for trenching and shoring issues. Contractors hired by UC Irvine must
have their own California OSHA (Cal/OSHA) compliant Trenching and Shoring
Program and follow all specifications in the Campus Design Criteria.
The purpose of this Trenching and Excavations plan is:
(a) To supplement the UC Irvine standard safety policies by providing
safety standards specifically designed to cover Excavation Safety on
the job, and;
(b) To ensure that each employee is trained and made aware of the safety
provisions which are to be implemented prior to the start of work.
This plan is designed to enable employers and employees to recognize
the hazards on the job and to establish the procedures that are to be
followed in order to prevent injury. Each employee will be trained in
these procedures and will strictly adhere to them.
"Actual slope" means the slope to which
an excavation face is excavated.
“Competent Person, trenching Competent
a person who is capable of identifying existing and predictable trenching
hazards in the work environment, which are hazardous or dangerous, AND
has the authority to stop work or take corrective actions to eliminate
“Competent Person on site” means that a Competent Person
must perform an inspection of the trench at the beginning of each shift,
after a rain storm, or whenever conditions change at the job site.
"Distress" means that the soil is in a condition
where a cave-in is imminent or is likely to occur. Distress is evidenced
by such phenomena as the development of fissures in the face of or adjacent
to an open excavation; the subsidence of the edge of an excavation; the
slumping of material from the face or the bulging or heaving of material
from the bottom of an excavation; the spilling of material from the face
of an excavation; and ravelling, i.e., small amounts of material such
as pebbles or little clumps of material suddenly separating from the
face of an excavation and trickling or rolling down into the excavation.
"Maximum allowable slope" means the steepest
incline of an excavation face that is acceptable for the most favorable
site conditions as protection against cave-ins, and is expressed as the
ratio of horizontal distance to vertical rise (H:V).
"Short term exposure" means a period of
time less than or equal to 24 hours that an excavation is open.
"Unconfined compressive strength" means
the load per unit area at which a soil will fail in compression. It can
be determined by laboratory testing or estimated in the field using a
pocket penetrometer, by thumb penetration tests, and other methods.
"Wet soil" means soil that contains significantly
more moisture than moist soil, but in such a range of values that cohesive
material will slump or begin to flow when vibrated. Granular material
that would exhibit cohesive properties when moist will lose those cohesive
properties when wet.
4.1 Facilities Management Supervisors
Supervisors are responsible for implementing the UC Irvine Trenching
and Shoring Program.
Supervisors will implement the program through:
- Ensuring that work location health and safety practices
related to trenching and shoring are communicated and understood
through documented training;
- Establishing work unit specific procedures for equipment
maintenance to comply with elements of this program;
- Enforcing health and safety procedures consistently through
work unit specific training and following the Codes of Safe Practices
(Appendix A) ;
- Including compliance with health and safety procedures
as part of the annual performance evaluation;
- Encouraging employees to report safety concerns without
fear of reprisal; and
- Reporting accidents and injuries promptly to Human
Supervisors are also responsible for the following activities related
to trenching and shoring activities:
- Creating an Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) (Appendix
B) for all trenching and shoring activities;
- Ensuring that the designated “Competent Person” has
reviewed and approved the SOP for trenching and shoring activities
- Ensuring that each job is analyzed for potential hazards
and controls and hazard analyses are performed for all job classifications
that perform trenching and shoring activities; and
- Ensuring that each job is reviewed by the designated “Competent
Person” before the trenching and shoring work commences.
4.2 Facilities Management Safety On site (SOS)
(USR ) in
partnership with EH&S are responsible for:
- Completing Work Unit specific Hazard Assessments and Trench
Entry and Authorization Form (Appendix
C) before entering an
excavation space and assuring that identified hazards are addressed;
- Developing Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) (Appendix
B) as necessary;
- Coordinating Work Unit specific training, as determined
necessary for specific competencies related to job duties; and
- Maintaining written records for work unit specific training.
Employees are responsible for following the requirements of the Trenching
and Shoring Program by:
- Asking questions of their supervisors when concerned
about an unknown or hazardous situation or substance;
- Reporting all unsafe conditions, practices or equipment
either to their supervisor, or to EH&S ;
- Keeping informed about conditions that may impact their
health and safety; and
- Participating in training
programs (Appendix D)
Health and Safety (EH&S) Responsibilities
The EH&S Department is responsible to:
- Assist Facilities Management to initiate the Annual
trenching and shoring permit application process with California
- Notify the local Cal/OSHA office about all trenching and
shoring activities that are about to occur either via telephone
or in writing;
- Assist Facilities Management in renewing the trenching
and shoring annual permit with Cal/OSHA; and
- Maintain and update the Trenching and Shoring Program on
an annual basis or when conditions on campus grounds and facilities
Specific Program Components
5.1 Implementation of Plan
It is the responsibility of Facilities Management and designated Competent
Persons (Appendix E) to implement this Excavations Plan . The designated
Competent Person is responsible for continual observational safety
checks of the work operations, and to enforce the safety policies and
procedures. The designated Competent Person is also responsible to
correct any identified unsafe acts or conditions immediately upon their
discovery. It is the responsibility of the employee to understand and
adhere to the procedures of this plan, and to follow the instructions
of the designated Competent Person . It is also the responsibility
of the designated Competent Person to bring to management's attention
any identified unsafe/hazardous conditions or acts that may cause injury
to either themselves or to any other employee. Any changes to this
Excavations Plan must be approved by the designated Competent Persons,
Facilities Management, and EH&S.
5.2 Specific Operating Procedures
Specific Operating Procedures
(SOP) (Appendix B) will be developed by
UC Irvine for all trenching and shoring activities and for activities
involving or generating toxic or hazardous materials. SOPs may also be
developed for high-hazard activities such as blasting, high-scaling,
etc., or for additional personal protective and life saving equipment
not identified by this program.
5.2.1 Hazard Assessment
UC Irvine has designated a group of Competent Persons to assess the
inherent hazards associated with work areas, occupations, and tasks in
excavations. The designated Competent Persons are responsible for eliminating
or minimizing the hazards by means of engineering and administrative
controls and by the use of personal protective equipment. Hazards include,
but are not limited to airborne materials, impact noise, injurious light,
heat and cold. Sources of these hazards include, but are not limited
to chemical use, moving parts and equipment, rolling and pinching parts
and equipment, elevated parts and equipment, sharp objects, electricity,
and light sources such as welding operations.
The Hazard Assessment Form/Trench
Entry and Authorization Form (Appendix C) for Trenching and Shoring activities
consists of a checklist that must be completed before the commencement
of each trenching and shoring project. Categories on the Hazard Assessment
- Competent Person;
- Protective Systems;
- Hazards – Underground, Overhead, Surface;
- Access to Trenches and Excavations;
- Confined Spaces and Hazardous Atmospheres;
- Hazardous Electrical Conditions requiring Lockout/Tagout
- Other Potential Physical Hazards;
- Personal Protective Equipment; and
- General Housekeeping.
5.2.2 Engineering and Administrative Controls
UC Irvine must use all feasible engineering and administrative controls
to mitigate or minimize hazards. Where hazards still exist after application
of these controls, personal protection equipment must be utilized.
5.2.3 Provision of Protective Equipment
UC Irvine must provide all necessary personal
protective equipment (PPE) (Appendix F) unless other arrangements are agreed upon. UC Irvine must
also provide for cleaning, laundering, or disposal of protective equipment
as well as repair, maintenance or replacement of protective equipment
as needed to maintain effectiveness of protection.
5.2.4 Signs for Designated Personal-Protection-Required Areas
In areas where there are
inherent hazards posed to all those who enter, that area must
have signs warning entrants of the need for personal protection.
Signs must be visible at all times when work is in progress and must
be promptly removed or covered when the hazard no longer exists.
Signs can be purchased in conjunction with EH&S.
Signs must be in conformance with the latest
edition of ANSI Z35.1 “Specifications
for Accident Prevention Signs” and with OSHA 1910.145, “Specifications
for Accident Prevention Signs and Tags”
“Danger” signs must be used only where there
is imminent danger to the lives of employees or others.
“Caution” Signs must be used to warn against
potential hazard and to caution against unsafe practices.
5.3 Requirements for Protective Systems
5.4 Commencement of Excavation Work
5.3.1 Protection of employees in excavations
Each employee in an excavation must be protected from cave-ins by an
adequate protective system designed in accordance with design criteria
listed below for (1) sloping and benching systems or (2) support systems,
shield systems and other protective systems except when:
(a) Excavations are made entirely in stable rock; or
(b) Excavations are less than 5 feet (1.52 m) in depth and examination
of the ground by a competent person provides no indication of a potential
systems (Appendix G) must have the capacity to resist without
failure all loads that are intended or could reasonably be expected
to be applied or transmitted to the system.
5.5 Accident/Injury Procedures
UC Irvine must follow Specific Excavation Requirements (Appendix H)
for the varying conditions that exist for different types of excavation
work on campus grounds. All employees working in Excavations must
follow the direction of the designated Competent Person in determining
Soil Classification (Appendix I) before work commences, and refer to
the Soil Classification Definitions (Appendix
I) , if necessary. Additionally,
a Trench Inspection and Entry Authorization
Form (Appendix C) must
be completed by a UC Irvine designated Competent Person before excavation
When an injury or illness occurs that is serious enough to require
immediate medical treatment, notify University Police (UCIPD) by calling
911 from a campus or external telephone. Completely describe the injury
so that a determination can be made on the proper response. Serious
occupational injuries, illnesses or exposures to hazardous substances
must be investigated.
When calling 911, UCIPD will be notified of the emergency, and will
then notify EH&S of the situation. EH&S will assist UCIPD in
making decisions on the next step to take in the emergency situation.
5.5.1 Reporting procedure:
If the injury is not serious or life-threatening but medical
treatment is required, refer to the Workers Compensation form " Obtaining
Medical Care for Employees with Work-Related Injuries ",
and ensure that the employee is transported to the locations listed on the aforementioned form.
The online incident form must
be completed on all injuries and work related illnesses. These forms
must be completed within 24 hours of the injury. For additional information,
refer to the Supervisor's Responsibility instructions on the Workers'
Compensation web page .
The supervisor will conduct an accident investigation as soon as possible
and provide appropriate action to prevent reoccurrence of the accident.
Should the accident involve the failure of any excavations-related
device or equipment, the supervisor will immediately remove the damaged
equipment from service and retain the equipment in the supervisor's
possession until further evaluation of the equipment.
6.1 Permit Requirements
Cal/OSHA requires the following information to be submitted to apply
for an annual trenching permit:
- Code of Safe Work Practices (Appendix A) related to
Trenching and Shoring activities;
- UC Irvine's Injury and Illness Prevention Plan;
- Interview with Competent Person and documented qualifications
- Site specific Confined Space Entry Management Program
for UC Irvine; and
- Site specific Trenching and Shoring program for UC Irvine.
6.2 Cal/OSHA Reporting Process (Appendix J)
UC Irvine must notify the nearest Cal/OSHA
office when any trenching and shoring activities will occur. EH&S
is responsible for submitting the annual application for all trenching
and shoring activities to Cal/OSHA.
UC Irvine is responsible for notifying Cal/OSHA about all trenching
and shoring activities that are about to occur either via telephone or
in writing. The process on how to notify EH&S and other information
required is identified in Appendix J. Once EH&S is notified about
trenching activities, they will complete the Cal/OSHA
Activity Notification Form for Trenching and Shoring Activities (Appendix
K) and fax or mail
it to the Cal/OSHA office.
Information and external references
Code of Regulations, Title 8 (8CCR), Section 1541, General Requirements
Code of Regulations, Title 8 (8CCR), Section 1541.1, Requirements
for Protective Systems.;
Training Requirements and Competency Assessment
8.1 Training Requirements and Components
8.2 Competency Assessment Tool
UC Irvine meets all Training
requirements and components (Appendix D) and conducts general awareness level trenching and shoring
training every three years. Specific training for Competent Person
training is provided on an annual basis.
A Competency Assessment
Tool (Appendix L) should
be used to assist UC Irvine in Designating Competent Persons related
to Trenching and Shoring activities.
Initiators: Sandra Huang Conrrad